Competences modeling

Nowadays, in the sphere of HR-management there is one more notion, which is becoming more and more popular - competences. It is pointed out as one of the most important in the policy of HR-management. It is used as the work assessment of the personnel or of the management. The assessment of the staff helps not only to identify the result of the work, but it also shows, how it was achieved.

It is quite difficult to point out one definition of this notion. Here two main approaches are represented.

1. American version speaks about competences as the description of the personnel code of conduct, which can lead to the desirable result.

2. European version determines competences as the work mission and expected work results. It is oriented on the determination of the minimal standard, which must be fulfilled by a specialist.

American version concentrates on the process of work, steps of which must be complied to archive the highest effectiveness.
There is one more definition of the competences. It is the characteristics of personality, which are needed to fulfill the required work and which can be assessed in the process of work.
Specialists underline the following types of competences:

1. Corporate competences, which are related to each person in the company. It is the result of the values of the company, which are fixed in such documents, as: strategy, the code of the corporate ethics. The investigation of corporate competences, which are usually about 5 or 7, is the indispensible part of the corporate policy of the company.

2. It is impossible to archive success in the company without Management competences. It is investigated for the managers, who have personnel in linear and functional subordination. Management competences are similar for the managers in absolutely different business areas, such as: "Strategic vision", "Business management", "Work with people".

3. Professional competences (or technical)are related to the limited group of positions. It is well known fact that it is quite difficult to draw up separate list of competences for each position. As practice shows, some companies use only key competences, some distinguish only management competencies, other companies underline competences only for the Sales department personnel.
Notwithstanding the fact, that there is a great number of well-known competences, each company must distinguish its own competences according to its individuality.

It is clear that it is head over hills for HR manager to fulfill these duties without managers and efficient workers` help.
Here are the competences development phases
1. Project planning: result, application of the result, schedule time. It is done to understand what the competences are formulated for, how to realize what are the consequences, how and who has to inform the personnel about it.

2.Project group formation. The strategy to involve personnel in this group excludes the idea to interpret this project as a new Activity rating scale.

3. Competences formation. The aim is to find out more information about personnel work and point out standards of human conduct, which lead to desirable result. The similarity or differences between the functions of the personnel determine the number of the workers who should be involved in the project.

The following methods help to find out more information about each type of work.
- personnel supervision. It will be effective in case of assessment of the work of shop-assistants or sales representatives;
- survey of personnel and managers;
- interview. It will be more effective to interview 1 or 2 the most efficient specialists from one department to point out standards of conduct, which will form the future competences;
- brainstorm for each manager of the department, if the number is not more than 12 or 15;
- work groups. The personnel in each closely related department tell about the effective conduct of their colleagues;
- repertoire approach points out the indicators of the most effective personnel. The managers describe the most useful traits of character of every specialist, who helps him to archive good results;
- method of critical incidents. It helps to identify the faults or success, which can be the result of this or that business;
- method of direct attribute. Five or six key managers have to choose the card with competences, which coincide with the goals of the company.

4. Elaboration of the level of competences. Here it is quite important to define the number of the levels (usually it is about 3 or 5 levels), the 1st , the 2nd and the 3rd or the level of professional development, the level of competences and the level of mastery. It is quite important that each level should be clearly distinguished and demonstrated in practice.

5. Profile for each concrete position. It defines not only the required conduct of workers but also give instructions how to fulfill their responsibilities. If specialists come across difficulties to form the profile of this or that worker it is necessary to check the validity of the competences which are working out. Profile is the best way for testing or possible correction of competences.

Competences comparison technology.
In the process of personnel assessment HR manager can use the simplified model of competences. In a limited period of time it is more affective 3 or 4 the most important competences.
As practice shows, it is more effective to compare competences between each other:
- which one is the most important to gain professional success?
- if the 1st one is more important than the 2nd one, it gets 2 points;
- if both are equally important, the 1st one gets 1 point;
- if the 1st one is less important, it get 0 point.
Finally, the competence, which gets more points, is used for assessment.

The effectiveness of the model depends on the following conditions:
- the objective reason for the foundation of competences;
- periodical renewal of competences;
- attracting personnel and managers to work process;
- internal PR project;
- informing and training of personnel hw to investigate and use competences;
- competences` integration into HR practice.
This is the example of the corporate competences in the industrial company (food production).

Corporate competences:
- personal effectiveness;
- loyalty and business ethics;
- professional development.

Management of competences:
- team management;
- goals/process management.

Professional competences for the employee of the sales department:
- professionalism and business vision;
- effective communication;
- aim-orientation.

Competence «Work with client»
It combines 4 levels.
LEVEL 1: Ability to find common language with people. Negotiation together with a manager or a colleague.
LEVEL 2: Individual collaboration with the Client. Functioning within strict limits. Maintenance of the Clients database.
LEVEL 3: Qualified negotiator. Ability to influence on the Client. Maintenance and active development of the Clients database.
LEVEL 4: Ability for highly professional negotiations. Permission to function as a consultant and advisor. Permission to make decisions working with Clients

Competence «Attitude to new goals»
It combines 5 levels, 2 of which are negative.
Outstanding level: the person is ready for new goals and considers it as a chance of his own development, defines aims, finds resources and ways of achievement.
More than expected level: the worker takes new tasks with enthusiasm, is oriented on its fulfillment.
Expected level: the employee takes new tasks, discusses it, requires adequate resources.
Lower than expected level: he takes new tasks only if it is in form of an order.
Unsatisfactory level: the worker actively criticize new plans, refusing to carry out it.